As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on November 6, 2014
Registration No. 333-     
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
JAMES RIVER GROUP HOLDINGS, LTD.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Bermuda
6331
98-0585280
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
32 Victoria Street
Hamilton, Bermuda HM 12
+1-441-278-4580
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Corporation Service Company
1180 Avenue of the Americas, Suite 210
New York, New York 10036
Telephone No. (212) 299-5600
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
 
Kenneth L. Henderson, Esq.
Andrew S. Rodman, Esq.
Bryan Cave LLP
1290 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10104
(212) 541-2000
John M. Schwolsky, Esq.
Michael Groll, Esq.
Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP
787 Seventh Avenue
New York, NY 10019
(212) 728-8000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box:
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer 
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company 
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
 
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering Price(1)(2)
Amount of
Registration Fee(3)
Common shares
$287,500,000
$33,407.50
(1)
  • Includes shares to be sold upon full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional common shares.
(2)
  • Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).
(3)
  • Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
 
 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, Dated November 6, 2014
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
Shares
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_james-river.jpg]
Common Shares
This is an initial public offering of common shares of James River Group Holdings, Ltd. The selling shareholders identified in this prospectus are offering common shares to be sold in the offering. All shares are being offered by the selling shareholders. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our common shares by the selling shareholders in this offering. No public market currently exists for our common shares. The estimated initial public offering price is between $ and $ per share.
The underwriters have the option to purchase up to additional common shares from the selling shareholders at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions. The underwriters can exercise this option within 30 days from the date of this prospectus.
We intend to apply to list our common shares on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol “JRVR.” The listing will be subject to approval of our application.
We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startup Act of 2012 and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company disclosure requirements.
Investing in our common shares involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 15.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state or other securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
 
Per Share
Total
Public offering price
$
               
$
               
Underwriting discounts and commissions
$
$
Proceeds, before expenses, to selling shareholders
$
$
We intend to apply for, and expect to receive, consent under the Bermuda Exchange Control Act 1972 (and its related regulations) from the Bermuda Monetary Authority (the “BMA”) for the issue and transfer of our common shares to and between residents and non-residents of Bermuda for exchange control purposes provided our common shares remain listed on an appointed stock exchange, which includes the NASDAQ Stock Market. In granting such consent the BMA accepts no responsibility for our financial soundness or the correctness of any of the statements made or opinions expressed in this prospectus.
The underwriters expect to deliver our common shares to purchasers on or about            , 2014.
 
Joint Book-Running Managers
 
Keefe Bruyette & Woods
UBS Investment Bank
FBR
BMO Capital Markets
A Stifel Company
Co-managers
 
KeyBanc Capital Markets
SunTrust Robinson Humphrey
Scotiabank
 
The date of this prospectus is            , 2014.

Table of Contents
 
Page
CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS
REGISTERED TRADEMARKS AND TRADEMARK APPLICATIONS
MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
1
RISK FACTORS
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
USE OF PROCEEDS
DIVIDEND POLICY
CAPITALIZATION
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
INSURANCE AND REINSURANCE INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
BUSINESS
CERTAIN REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS
MANAGEMENT
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
PRINCIPAL AND SELLING SHAREHOLDERS
DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL
COMPARISON OF SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS
SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE
TAX CONSIDERATIONS
UNDERWRITING
LEGAL MATTERS
EXPERTS
ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES UNDER U.S. FEDERAL SECURITIES LAWS
GLOSSARY OF INDUSTRY AND OTHER TERMS
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
F-1
We have not authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you.
No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit the public offering of our common shares or possession or distribution of this prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.

CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS
Unless the context indicates or suggests otherwise, references in this prospectus to “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to James River Group Holdings, Ltd. and its consolidated subsidiaries. Other entities are referred to as follows:
“D. E. Shaw Affiliates” means D. E. Shaw CF-SP Franklin, L.L.C., a Delaware limited liability company; D. E. Shaw CH-SP Franklin, L.L.C., a Delaware limited liability company; and D. E. Shaw Oculus Portfolios, L.L.C., a Delaware limited liability company.
“Falls Lake General” means Falls Lake General Insurance Company (formerly Stonewood General Insurance Company), an Ohio domiciled stock insurance company and wholly-owned subsidiary of Falls Lake National.
“Falls Lake Group” means Falls Lake General, Falls Lake National and Stonewood Insurance.
“Falls Lake National” means Falls Lake National Insurance Company (formerly Stonewood National Insurance Company), an Ohio domiciled stock insurance company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of James River Group.
“Goldman Sachs” means The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation and Goldman Sachs JRVR Investors Offshore, L.P., a Cayman Islands exempted limited partnership.
“James River Casualty” means James River Casualty Company, a Virginia domiciled stock insurance company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of James River Insurance.
“James River Group” means James River Group, Inc., a Delaware insurance holding company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company.
“James River Insurance” means James River Insurance Company, an Ohio domiciled stock insurance company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of James River Group.
“JRG Re” means JRG Reinsurance Company, Ltd., a Bermuda domiciled reinsurance company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company.
“Stonewood Insurance” means Stonewood Insurance Company, a North Carolina domiciled stock insurance company and wholly-owned subsidiary of Falls Lake National.
Certain abbreviations and definitions of certain insurance, reinsurance, financial and other terms used in this prospectus are defined in the “Glossary of Industry and Other Terms” section of this prospectus.
REGISTERED TRADEMARKS AND TRADEMARK APPLICATIONS
“James River,” “James River Group,” “Falls Lake Insurance Companies” and our Blue/Grey Logo are the subject of either a trademark registration or an application for registration in the United States. Other brands, names and trademarks contained in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks and trade names are referred to in this prospectus without the SM and ® symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that the owner thereof will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, such owner’s rights to these trademarks, service marks and trade names.
MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
We use market and industry data, forecasts and projections throughout this prospectus. We have obtained certain market and industry data from publicly available industry publications. These sources generally state that the information they provide has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of the information are not guaranteed. The forecasts and projections are based on historical market data, and there is no assurance that any of the forecasts or projected amounts will be achieved.


PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. It does not contain all the information that you should consider before investing. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, including the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and the related notes contained elsewhere in this prospectus before making an investment decision. Some of the statements in this summary constitute forward-looking statements. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” For the definitions of certain terms used in this prospectus, see “Glossary of Industry and Other Terms.” All dollar amounts referred to in this prospectus are in U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.
Our Company
James River Group Holdings, Ltd. is a Bermuda-based insurance holding company. We own and operate a group of specialty insurance and reinsurance companies founded by members of our management team. For the year ended December 31, 2013, 70% of our group-wide gross written premiums originated from the U.S. excess and surplus (“E&S”) lines market. Substantially all of our business is casualty insurance and reinsurance, and for the year ended December 31, 2013, we derived over 95% of our group-wide gross written premiums from casualty insurance and reinsurance. Our objective is to generate compelling returns on tangible equity, while limiting underwriting and investment volatility. We seek to accomplish this by earning profits from insurance and reinsurance underwriting on a consistent basis while managing our capital opportunistically to grow tangible equity per share for our shareholders. Our group includes three specialty property-casualty insurance and reinsurance segments: Excess and Surplus Lines, Specialty Admitted Insurance and Casualty Reinsurance. In all of our segments, we tend to focus on accounts associated with small or medium-sized businesses.
For the year ended December 31, 2013, we wrote $368.5 million in gross written premiums, earned net income of $67.3 million and had a combined ratio of 91.2%. For the six months ended June 30, 2014, our combined ratio was 98.0%. Our combined ratio from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2014 was 99.4%. A combined ratio that is less than 100% indicates profitable underwriting. Earning an underwriting profit means the premiums earned in the period are greater than the sum of all losses, loss adjustment expenses and other costs associated with operations in that same period. Making consistent underwriting profits is important to us because if we earn positive results from underwriting, we can then count all of our investment income as profits. If we have underwriting losses, we must use investment income or capital to cover those losses. This is why we believe underwriting results are an important criterion for evaluating our performance. According to a report issued in September 2014 by A.M. Best Company, the U.S. E&S lines market (from which we earn 70% of our gross written premiums) has had meaningfully better underwriting results than the broader U.S. property-casualty industry over the five and ten year periods ending in 2013.
We also measure financial performance by our percentage growth in tangible equity per share and return on tangible equity. Since our formation in December of 2007 through June 30, 2014, we have increased tangible equity per share at a compounded rate of 9.3% per year, after giving effect to dividends paid and share repurchases. Tangible equity is defined as our shareholders’ equity less goodwill and intangible assets. Until recently, we held substantial amounts of undeployed capital as we had to fully capitalize our reinsurance company prior to its writing any business. We are now growing into our capital base, and in the twelve month period ended June 30, 2014, our after-tax operating return on tangible equity was 12.7%. In August 2014, we declared a $70.0 million dividend to our shareholders.
We write very little property or catastrophe insurance and no property catastrophe reinsurance. For the year ended December 31, 2013, property insurance and reinsurance represented less than 5% of our gross written premiums. When we do write property insurance, we buy reinsurance to significantly mitigate our risk. We have structured our reinsurance arrangements so that our estimated net pre-tax loss from a 1/1000 year probable maximum loss event is no more than $10.0 million on a group-wide basis.
When attractive opportunities arise, we seek to grow our business while maintaining a conservative balance sheet and having lower volatility in our underwriting results. For example, for the year ended December 31, 2013, our Excess and Surplus Lines segment’s gross written premiums increased by 21.3% over 2012 and rate per unit of exposure grew by 2.6% over 2012. The growth in premiums and increase in


rates has continued in 2014, with premiums up 27.3% through the six months ended June 30, 2014 compared to the corresponding period in 2013, while rates per unit of exposure have increased by 4.7% through the six months ended June 30, 2014 over the corresponding period in 2013. Unit of exposure is a measure that is used to associate the premiums charged on a policy with a factor that relates directly to the exposures covered by the policy.
We report our business in four segments: Excess and Surplus Lines, Specialty Admitted Insurance, Casualty Reinsurance and Corporate and Other.
The Excess and Surplus Lines segment offers E&S commercial lines liability and property insurance in every U.S. state and the District of Columbia through James River Insurance and its wholly-owned subsidiary, James River Casualty. James River Insurance and James River Casualty are both non-admitted carriers. Non-admitted carriers writing in the E&S market are not bound by most of the rate and form regulations imposed on standard market companies, allowing them flexibility to change the coverage terms offered and the rate charged without the time constraints and financial costs associated with the filing process. In 2013, the average account in this segment generated annual gross written premiums of approximately $16,000. The Excess and Surplus Lines segment distributes primarily through wholesale insurance brokers. Members of our management team have participated in this market for over three decades and have long-standing relationships with the wholesale agents who place E&S lines accounts. The Excess and Surplus Lines segment produced 52.2% of our gross written premiums for the year ended December 31, 2013.
The Specialty Admitted Insurance segment focuses on niche classes within the standard insurance markets, such as workers’ compensation coverage for residential contractors, light manufacturing operations, transportation workers and healthcare workers in North Carolina, Virginia, South Carolina and Tennessee. This segment has admitted licenses in 47 states and the District of Columbia. While this segment has historically focused on workers’ compensation business, going forward, we anticipate growing our fronting business and our other commercial lines through our program business. We believe we can earn substantial fees in our program and fronting business by writing policies and then transferring all or a substantial portion of the underwriting risk position to other capital providers that pay us a fee for “fronting” or ceding the business to them. The Specialty Admitted Insurance segment distributes through a variety of sources, including independent retail agents, program administrators and managing general agents (“MGAs”). The Specialty Admitted Insurance segment produced 5.6% of our gross written premiums for the year ended December 31, 2013.
The Casualty Reinsurance segment consists of JRG Re, our Bermuda domiciled reinsurance subsidiary, which provides proportional and working layer casualty reinsurance to third parties and to our U.S.-based insurance subsidiaries. The Casualty Reinsurance segment’s underwriting results only include the results of reinsurance written with unaffiliated companies and do not include the premiums and losses ceded under our internal quota share arrangement described below, which are captured in our Excess and Surplus Lines and Specialty Admitted Insurance segments, respectively. Typically, we structure our reinsurance contracts (also known as treaties) as quota share arrangements, with loss mitigating features, such as commissions that adjust based on underwriting results. We frequently include risk mitigating features in our excess working layer treaties, which allows the ceding company to capture a greater percentage of the profits should the business prove more profitable than expected, or alternatively provides us with additional premiums should the business incur higher than expected losses. We believe these structures allow us to participate in the risk side-by-side with the ceding company and best align our interests with the interests of our cedents. Treaties with loss mitigation features including sliding scale ceding commissions represented 85% of the gross premiums written by our Casualty Reinsurance segment during the first six months of 2014. We typically do not assume large individual risks in our Casualty Reinsurance segment, nor do we write property catastrophe reinsurance. Two of the three largest unaffiliated accounts written by JRG Re in 2013 and during the first six months of 2014 were ceded from E&S carriers. The Casualty Reinsurance segment distributes through traditional reinsurance brokers. The Casualty Reinsurance segment produced 42.2% of our gross written premiums for the year ended December 31, 2013.
We have direct intercompany reinsurance agreements under which we cede 70% of the pooled net written premiums of our U.S. subsidiaries (after taking into account third-party reinsurance) to JRG Re.


This business is ceded to JRG Re under a proportional, or quota-share, reinsurance treaty that provides for an arm’s length ceding commission. Notwithstanding the intercompany agreement, from an accounting perspective, the economic results (underwriting profits or losses) of this business are reflected in our Excess and Surplus Lines and Specialty Admitted Insurance reporting segments. At June 30, 2014, approximately 64% of our cash and invested assets were held by JRG Re, which we believe benefits from a favorable operating environment, including an absence of corporate income or investment taxes. For the year ended December 31, 2013, our total effective tax rate was 12.6%. We also pay a 1% excise tax on premiums ceded to JRG Re.
The Corporate and Other segment consists of the management and treasury activities of our holding companies and interest expense associated with our debt.
In 2013, our underwriting subsidiaries wrote a total of $368.5 million in gross written premiums, allocated by segment and underlying market as follows:
 
Gross Written Premiums by Segment
Gross Written Premiums by Underlying Market
[MISSING IMAGE: t1401796_pie-premiums.jpg]
The A.M. Best financial strength rating for our group’s regulated insurance subsidiaries is “A-” (Excellent), with a “positive outlook.” This rating reflects A.M. Best’s opinion of our insurance subsidiaries’ financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet obligations to policyholders and is not an evaluation directed towards the protection of investors.
The financial strength ratings assigned by A.M. Best have an impact on the ability of our regulated subsidiaries to attract and retain agents and brokers and on the risk profiles of the submissions for insurance that our subsidiaries receive. The “A-” (Excellent), with a “positive outlook” ratings assigned to our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries are consistent with our business plans and we believe allow our subsidiaries to actively pursue relationships with the agents and brokers identified in their marketing plans.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe we have the following competitive strengths:
Proven and Strong Management Team Whose Financial Interests are Aligned with Shareholders.   Our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, J. Adam Abram, has a history of forming and managing profitable specialty insurance companies. Mr. Abram was the founder of Front Royal Group in 1992, which was sold to Argo Group International Holdings Limited (Nasdaq: AGII) in August 2001. In 2002, Mr. Abram formed James River Group, our predecessor company, which enjoyed strong underwriting profits until it was sold to James River Group Holdings, Ltd. (formerly Franklin Holdings (Bermuda), Ltd.) in December 2007. Mr. Abram has also founded and run successful businesses in the banking and commercial real estate sectors. Mr. Abram intends to invest $ million in this offering.


Our President and Chief Operating Officer, Robert P. Myron, who has served in various capacities with our group since 2010, has a history of working in a senior management capacity in the insurance and reinsurance industries in both the United States and Bermuda. Mr. Myron has significant experience working in finance, underwriting and operations of several different insurance and reinsurance companies over the course of his career. Mr. Myron intends to invest $ million in this offering.
Our Chief Financial Officer, Gregg Davis, has been with our group and its predecessors since 1992 and was the Chief Financial Officer of Front Royal Group, working alongside Mr. Abram for almost two decades. Mr. Davis intends to invest $ in this offering.
Broad Underwriting Expertise.   We have a broad appetite to underwrite a diverse set of risks and strive to be innovative in tailoring our products to provide solutions for our distribution partners and insureds. As a result, we believe we are a “go to” market for a wide variety of risks. We are able to structure solutions for our insureds and the wholesale brokers with whom we work because of our deep technical expertise and experience in the niches and specialties we underwrite.
Conservative Risk Management with an Emphasis on Lowering Volatility.   We earn our profits by taking underwriting and investment risk. We have experience underwriting in many classes of insurance. We also have experience investing in many types of assets. At the same time, we actively seek to avoid underwriting business or making investments that involve an unacceptably high risk of causing large losses.
We seek to limit our catastrophic underwriting exposure in all areas, but in particular to property risks and catastrophic events. Our U.S. primary companies purchase reinsurance from unaffiliated reinsurers to manage our net exposure to any one risk or occurrence. In addition, our policy forms and pricing are subject to regular formal analysis to ensure we are insuring the types of risks we intend and that we are being appropriately compensated for taking on those risks. When we write reinsurance, we seek to avoid catastrophic risks and contractually limit the amount of exposure we have to any one risk or occurrence. We prefer to structure our assumed reinsurance treaties as proportional or quota share reinsurance, which is generally less volatile than excess of loss or catastrophe reinsurance. We believe this structure aligns our interests with those of the ceding company.
We attempt to improve risk-adjusted returns in our investment portfolio by allocating a portion of our portfolio to investments where we take measured risks based upon detailed knowledge of certain niche asset classes. We do not operate like a hedge fund, but we are comfortable allocating a portion of our assets to non-traditional investments. We consider non-traditional investments to include investments that are (1) unrated bond or fixed income securities (2) non-listed equities or (3) investments that generally have less liquidity than rated bond or fixed income securities or listed equities. We characterize these investments as non-traditional because we do not believe that these types of investments are commonly held by property-casualty insurance companies. Examples of non-traditional investments held at June 30, 2014 and their respective percentage of our total invested assets at such date include syndicated bank loans (18.4%), interests in limited liability companies that invest in renewable energy opportunities (1.9%), limited partnerships that invest in debt or equity securities (0.4%), and a private debt security (0.4%). While we are willing to make investments in non-traditional types of investments, we seek to avoid asset classes and investments that we do not understand or that could expose us to inappropriate levels of risk. The weighted average credit rating of our portfolio of fixed maturity securities, bank loans and redeemable preferred stocks as of June 30, 2014 was “A.” We also maintain a disciplined interest rate position by maintaining a weighted average duration of approximately three years for this portfolio as of June 30, 2014.
Talented Underwriters and Operating Leadership.   The managers of our 15 underwriting divisions have an average of over 25 years of industry experience, substantial subject matter expertise and deep technical knowledge and have been successful and profitable underwriters for us in the specialty casualty insurance and reinsurance sectors. Our segment presidents have an average of 31 years of experience and all have extensive backgrounds and histories working in management capacities in specialty casualty insurance and reinsurance.
Robust Technology and Data Capture.   We seek to ground our underwriting decisions in reliable historical data and technical evaluation of risks. Our underwriters utilize intuitive systems and differentiated technologies, many of which are proprietary. We have implemented processes to capture extensive data on


our book of business, before, during and after the underwriting analysis and decision. We use the data we collect to inform and, we believe, improve our judgment about similar risks as we refine our underwriting criteria. We use the data we collect in regular formal review processes for each of our lines of business and significant reinsurance treaties.
Focus on Small and Medium-Sized Casualty Niche and Specialty Business.   We believe that small and medium-sized casualty accounts, in niche areas where we focus, are consistently among the most attractive subsets of the property-casualty insurance and reinsurance market. We think the unique characteristics of the risks within these markets require each account to be individually underwritten in an efficient manner. Many carriers have chosen either to reject business that requires individual underwriting or have attempted to automate the underwriting of this highly variable business. While we use technology to greatly reduce the cost of individually underwriting these accounts in our Excess and Surplus Lines and Specialty Admitted Insurance segments, we continue to have our underwriters make individual judgments regarding the underwriting and pricing of each account. We believe this approach is more likely to produce consistent results over time and across markets. In addition, while we believe that the insurance and reinsurance industry is generally overcapitalized at this time and that rates in certain property and casualty sectors are “soft” or “softening,” we are currently achieving rate increases and experiencing benign loss trends in our Excess and Surplus Lines and Specialty Admitted Insurance segments, which represented 57.8% of our gross written premiums for the twelve months ended December 31, 2013. We believe that there are compelling opportunities for measured but profitable growth in many sectors of the insurance and reinsurance market we target.
Active Claims Management.   Our U.S.-based primary insurance companies actively manage claims as part of keeping losses and loss adjustment expenses low. We attempt to investigate and settle all covered claims promptly and thoroughly, which we generally accomplish through direct contact with the insured and other affected parties. We have been able to close 90% of claims within three to five years, and as of June 30, 2014, our reserves for claims incurred but not reported (“IBNR”) were approximately 70% of our total net loss reserves. When our investigation leads us to conclude that a claim or claims are not validly covered under the policy form, we vigorously contest payment and are willing to pursue prosecution for claims fraud when warranted.
Efficient Operating Platform.   Our Bermuda domicile and operations provide for capital flexibility and an efficient tax structure. At June 30, 2014, approximately 64% of our cash and invested assets were held by our Bermuda-based subsidiary which benefits from a favorable operating environment, including an absence of corporate income or investment taxes. We also have a competitive and decreasing expense ratio, as we carefully manage personnel and all other costs throughout our group while growing our business. In addition, Bermuda has many advantages as a place of domicile, including a large population of experienced insurance executives, a deep market of reinsurance business and a well-established regulatory regime that has fostered the acceptance of Bermuda-based reinsurers by rating agencies and insurance buyers.
Our Strategy
We believe our approach to our business will help us achieve our goal of generating compelling returns on tangible equity while limiting volatility in our financial results. This approach involves the following:
Generate Consistent Underwriting Profits.   We seek to make underwriting profits each and every year. We attempt to find ways to grow in markets that we believe to be profitable, but are less concerned about growth than maintaining profitability in our underwriting activities (without regard to investment income). Accordingly, we are willing to reduce the premiums we write when we cannot achieve the pricing and contract terms we believe are necessary to meet our financial goals.
Maintain a Strong Balance Sheet.   Balance sheet integrity is key to our long-term success. In order to maintain balance sheet integrity, we seek to estimate the amount of future obligations, especially reserves for losses, in a consistent and appropriate fashion. Excluding 2012, we have had favorable loss reserve development for each prior year period since 2008 and for the six months ended June 30, 2014. From December 31, 2007 through June 30, 2014, we have experienced $81.5 million of cumulative net favorable reserve development.


Focus on Specialty Insurance Markets.   By focusing on specialty markets in which our underwriters have particular expertise and in which we have fewer competitors than in standard markets, we have greater flexibility to price and structure our products in accordance with our underwriting strategy. We believe underwriting profitability can best be achieved through restricting our risk taking on insurance and reinsurance to niches where, because of our expertise, we can distinguish ourselves in the underwriting and pricing process.
Use Timely and Accurate Data.   We design our internal processing and data collection systems to provide our management team with accurate and relevant information in real-time. Our data warehouse collects premium, commission and claims data, including detailed information regarding policy price, terms, conditions and the nature of the insured’s business. This data allows us to analyze trends in our business, including results by individual agent or broker, underwriter and class of business and expand or contract our operations quickly in response to market conditions. We rely on our information technology systems in this process. Additionally, the claims staff also contributes to our underwriting operations through its communication of claims information to our underwriters.
Respond Rapidly to Market Opportunities and Challenges.   We plan to grow our business to take advantage of opportunities in markets in which we believe we can use our expertise to generate consistent underwriting profits. We seek to measure rates monthly and react quickly to changes in the rates or terms the market will accept. For the year ended December 31, 2013, our Excess and Surplus Lines segment gross written premiums increased by 21.3% and our rate per unit of exposure grew by 2.6%, both over the same period in 2012. The growth in premiums and increase in rates has continued during the first six months of 2014, with gross written premiums up 27.3% and rate per unit of exposure growing 4.7% over the corresponding period of 2013. In this favorable pricing environment, we have taken steps to grow and are increasing gross written premiums across most underwriting divisions in this segment. Recently, we have enjoyed success writing insurance for companies engaged in energy-related businesses and offering insurance products in the growing “shared economy” technology sector. At the same time, as rates have decreased for medical professional liability we have significantly reduced our writings in this class.
When market conditions have been challenging, or when actual experience has not been as favorable as we anticipated, we have tried to act quickly to evaluate our situation and to make course corrections in order to protect our profits and preserve tangible equity. Our actions have included reducing our writings when margins tightened, exiting lines or classes of business when we believed the risk of continuing to write a line outweighed the potential rewards from underwriting the line and increasing loss estimates when we determined that it was appropriate. For example, when commercial casualty rates (which we believe are a proxy for E&S casualty pricing) declined from 2008 to 2011, we reduced our gross written premiums in our Excess and Surplus Lines segment from $184.2 million in 2008 to $116.1 million in 2010 while maintaining combined ratios of 87.6%, 91.7% and 88.9% for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively, for this segment. In our Casualty Reinsurance segment, we had underwriting profits from writing crop reinsurance in 2008, 2009 and 2010. However, we had pre-tax underwriting losses of $9.4 million and $5.7 million in 2011 and 2012. We responded by discontinuing this line of business and now have no further exposure to crop reinsurance. Similarly, when the workers’ compensation business in our Specialty Admitted Insurance segment was negatively impacted by the severe recession from 2008 to 2012, we significantly reduced our premium writings and increased our best estimate of loss reserves for this line of business. As a result of subsequent favorable loss experience, those reserve increases have since proven redundant.
Manage Capital Actively.   We seek to make “both sides” of our balance sheet generate better than average risk-adjusted returns than our peers. We invest and manage our capital with a goal of consistently increasing tangible equity for our shareholders and generating attractive returns on tangible equity. We intend to expand our premium volume and capital base to take advantage of opportunities to earn an underwriting profit or to reduce our premium volume and capital base if attractive underwriting opportunities are not available. We expect to finance our future operations with a combination of debt and equity and do not intend to raise or retain more capital than we believe we can profitably deploy in a reasonable time frame. We may not, however, always be able to raise capital when needed. Although we anticipate being able to pay a regular dividend, our ratings from A.M. Best are very important to us and maintaining them will be a principal consideration in our decisions regarding capital management.


Our Structure
The chart below displays our corporate structure as it pertains to our holding and operating subsidiaries.
[MISSING IMAGE: t1401796_flow-structure.jpg]
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), including as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As a result, we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:
  • reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements and no requirement to include a compensation discussion and analysis;
  • no requirement to hold nonbinding advisory shareholder votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements;
  • the ability to present only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related disclosure in our “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part;
  • an exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (“Sarbanes-Oxley”); and
  • the ability to use an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards.
We intend to take advantage of some, but not all, of the exemptions available to emerging growth companies until such time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different from the information you receive from other public companies in which you invest.
We are irrevocably electing not to take advantage of the extended transition period afforded by the JOBS Act for the implementation of new or revised accounting standards and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies.


Following this offering, we will continue to be an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of (1) the last day of the fiscal year during which we had total annual gross revenues of at least $1 billion (as indexed for inflation), (2) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of our initial public offering under this prospectus, (3) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt and (4) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” as defined under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).
Recapitalization
Immediately prior to the completion of this offering, all outstanding Class A common shares will convert into common shares, on a 1 for basis. We refer to the conversion of Class A common shares to common shares as the “Recapitalization.” Upon completion of the Recapitalization, our authorized share capital will consist of common shares, par value $ per share ( issued and outstanding), and undesignated preferred shares, par value $ per share (none issued and outstanding). See “Capitalization” and “Description of Share Capital.”
Information in this prospectus assumes the conversion of all outstanding Class A common shares into common shares at a 1 for ratio, unless otherwise indicated.
Summary Financial Data
The following tables present summary financial data of James River Group Holdings, Ltd. derived from (i) our consolidated financial statements, which have been audited by Ernst & Young, LLP, for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 and as of December 31, 2013 and 2012 included in this prospectus and (ii) our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013 and as of June 30, 2014 and 2013. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of our management, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements presented in the tables below reflect all adjustments, consisting of only normal and recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of our consolidated financial position and results of operations as of the dates and for the periods indicated.


These historical results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected from any future period. The following information is only a summary and should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business,” “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data” and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
Six Months Ended
June 30,
Year Ended
December 31,
2014
2013
2013
2012
2011
($ in thousands, except for per share data)
Operating Results:
Gross written premiums(1)
$
244,201
$
165,021
$
368,518
$
491,931
$
490,821
Ceded written premiums(2)
(30,419
)
(17,966
)
(43,352
)
(139,622
)
(57,752
)
Net written premiums
$
213,782
$
147,055
$
325,166
$
352,309
$
433,069
Net earned premiums
$
186,068
$
162,853
$
328,078
$
364,568
$
337,105
Net investment income
23,193
25,534
45,373
44,297
48,367
Net realized investment (losses) gains
(3,711
)
12,514
12,619
8,915
20,899
Other income
941
103
222
130
226
Total revenues
206,491
201,004
386,292
417,910
406,597
Losses and loss adjustment expenses
117,450
105,859
184,486
264,496
233,479
Other operating expenses
64,857
57,528
114,804
126,884
115,378
Other expenses
389
534
677
3,350
592
Interest expense
3,104
3,626
6,777
8,266
8,132
Amortization of intangible assets
298
1,278
2,470
2,848
2,848
Impairment of intangible assets
4,299
Total expenses
186,098
168,825
309,214
410,143
360,429
Income before income tax expense
20,393
32,179
77,078
7,767
46,168
Income tax expense (benefit)
1,742
4,043
9,741
(897
)
7,695
Net income(3)
$
18,651
$
28,136
$
67,337
$
8,664
$
38,473
Net operating income(4)
$
21,351
$
19,676
$
58,918
$
7,935
$
22,352
Earnings per Share:
Basic
$
32.67
$
43.44
$
110.60
$
12.12
$
53.74
Diluted
$
32.40
$
43.44
$
110.39
$
11.95
$
53.16
Weighted – average shares outstanding –  diluted
575,686
647,672
610,016
714,667
714,360


 
At or for the Six Months
Ended June 30,
At or for the Year Ended December 31,
2014
2013
2013
2012
2011
($ in thousands, except for ratios)
Balance Sheet Data:
Cash and invested assets
$
1,276,146
$
1,150,678
$
1,217,078
$
1,235,537
Reinsurance recoverables
124,691
147,970
120,477
176,863
Goodwill and intangible assets
222,255
223,745
222,553
225,023
Total assets
1,897,972
1,854,220
1,806,793
2,025,381
Reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses
683,573
719,368
646,452
709,721
Unearned premiums
249,632
207,664
218,532
239,055
Senior debt
58,000
58,000
58,000
35,000
Junior subordinated debt
104,055
104,055
104,055
104,055
Total liabilities
1,166,114
1,185,195
1,105,303
1,241,341
Total shareholders’ equity
731,858
669,025
701,490
784,040
GAAP Underwriting Ratios:
Loss ratio(5)
63.1
%
65.0
%
56.2
%
72.6
%
69.3
%
Expense ratio(6)
34.9
%
35.3
%
35.0
%
34.8
%
34.2
%
Combined ratio(7)
98.0
%
100.3
%
91.2
%
107.4
%
103.5
%
Other Data:
Tangible shareholders’ equity(8)
$
509,603
$
445,280
$
478,937
$
559,017
Tangible shareholders’ equity per common share outstanding
$
892.78
$
780.37
$
839.05
$
775.77
Debt to total capitalization ratio(9)
18.1
%
19.5
%
18.8
%
15.1
%
Regulatory capital and surplus(10)
$
610,912
$
538,023
$
580,267
$
596,272
Net written premiums to surplus ratio(11)
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.6
 
(1)
  • The amount received or to be received for insurance policies written or assumed by us during a specific period of time without reduction for acquisition costs, reinsurance costs or other deductions.
(2)
  • The amount of written premiums ceded to (reinsured by) other insurers.
(3)
  • Net income represents income from continuing operations for all periods presented.
(4)
  • Net operating income is a non-GAAP measure. We define net operating income as net income excluding net realized investment gains and losses, expenses related to due diligence costs for various merger and acquisition activities, severance costs associated with terminated employees, impairment charges on goodwill and intangible assets, gains on extinguishment of debt and interest expense on a leased building that we are deemed to own for accounting purposes. We use net operating income as an internal performance measure in the management of our operations because we believe it gives our management and other users of our financial information useful insight into our results of operations and our underlying business performance. Net operating income should not be viewed as a substitute for net income in accordance with GAAP. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures” for a reconciliation of net operating income to net income in accordance with GAAP.
(5)
  • The loss ratio is the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of losses and loss adjustment expenses to net earned premiums, net of the effects of reinsurance.


(6)
  • The expense ratio is the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of other operating expenses to net earned premiums.
(7)
  • The combined ratio is the sum of the loss ratio and the expense ratio. A combined ratio under 100% generally indicates an underwriting profit. A combined ratio over 100% generally indicates an underwriting loss.
(8)
  • Tangible shareholders’ equity is shareholders’ equity less goodwill and intangible assets.
(9)
  • The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of total indebtedness for borrowed money to the sum of total indebtedness for borrowed money and shareholders’ equity.
(10)
  • For our U.S. insurance subsidiaries, the excess of assets over liabilities as determined in accordance with statutory accounting principles as determined by the NAIC. For our Bermuda reinsurer, shareholders’ equity in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”).
(11)
  • We believe this measure is useful in evaluating our insurance subsidiaries’ operating leverage. It may not be comparable to the definition of net written premiums to surplus ratio for other companies. The calculations for the six months ended June 30, 2014 and 2013 use annualized net written premiums as the numerator in the calculation. Annualized results are not necessarily indicative of our actual results for the full year.
Principal Executive Office
Our principal executive office is located at 32 Victoria Street, Hamilton, Bermuda HM 12, and our phone number is (441) 278-4580. Our website can be found at http:/​/​www.JRGH.net, the contents of which are not a part of, and shall not be deemed to be a part of, this prospectus.
Summary Risk Factors
Our business is subject to numerous risks described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. You should carefully consider these risks before making an investment in our common shares. Some of these risks include:
  • the inherent uncertainty of estimating reserves and the possibility that incurred losses may be greater than our loss and loss adjustment expense reserves;
  • inaccurate estimates and judgments in our risk management may expose us to greater risks than intended;
  • the potential loss of key members of our management team or key employees and our ability to attract and retain personnel;
  • adverse economic factors, including recession, inflation, periods of high unemployment or lower economic activity, could adversely affect our growth and profitability;
  • a decline in our financial strength rating resulting in a reduction of new or renewal business;
  • reliance on a select group of brokers and agents for a significant portion of our business and the impact of our potential failure to maintain such relationships;
  • existing or new regulations that may inhibit our ability to achieve our business objectives or subject us to penalties or suspensions for non-compliance or cause us to incur substantial compliance costs;
  • a failure of any of the loss limitations or exclusions we employ;
  • potential effects on our business of emerging claim and coverage issues;
  • exposure to credit risk, interest rate risk and other market risk in our investment portfolio;
  • reliance on brokers and agents;
  • losses in our investment portfolio;


  • the cyclical nature of the insurance and reinsurance industry, resulting in periods during which we may experience excess underwriting capacity and unfavorable premium rates;
  • additional government or market regulation;
  • our reinsurance business being subject to loss settlements made by ceding companies and fronting carriers;
  • a forced sale of investments to meet our liquidity needs;
  • our ability to obtain reinsurance coverage at reasonable prices or on terms that adequately protect us;
  • our underwriters and other associates could take excessive risks;
  • losses resulting from reinsurance counterparties failing to pay us on reinsurance claims or insurance companies with whom we have a fronting arrangement failing to pay us for claims;
  • the potential impact of internal or external fraud, operational errors, systems malfunctions or cybersecurity incidents;
  • our ability to manage our growth effectively;
  • competition within the casualty insurance and reinsurance industry;
  • an adverse outcome in a legal action that we are or may become subject to in the course of our insurance and reinsurance operations;
  • in the event we do not qualify for the insurance company exception to the Passive Foreign Investment Company (“PFIC”) rules and are therefore considered a PFIC, there could be material adverse tax consequences to an investor that is subject to U.S. federal income taxation, including a higher tax rate on dividends received from us and any gain realized on a sale or other disposition of our common shares, as well as an interest charge;
  • the Company or JRG Re becoming subject to U.S. federal income taxation;
  • failure to maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Sarbanes-Oxley;
  • the D. E. Shaw Affiliates’ continued ownership of a significant portion of our outstanding shares and their resulting ability to exert significant influence over matters requiring shareholder approval in a manner that could conflict with the interests of other shareholders; additionally, the D. E. Shaw Affiliates will have certain rights with respect to board representation and approval rights with respect to certain transactions; and
  • changes in our financial condition, regulations or other factors that may restrict our ability to pay dividends.


The Offering
Issuer
James River Group Holdings, Ltd., an exempted company registered under the laws of Bermuda.
Common Shares Offered
common shares. All shares are being offered by the selling shareholders.
Overallotment Option
The selling shareholders have granted the underwriters an option, for a period of 30 days, to purchase up to additional common shares on the same terms and conditions as set forth on the front cover of this prospectus to cover sales of common shares by the underwriters that exceed the number of shares being offered, if any.
Common Shares Presently Outstanding
As of the date hereof, there are 570,807 Class A common shares outstanding and no common shares outstanding. All outstanding Class A common shares will be converted into common shares at a 1 for ratio.
Common Shares Outstanding Following
the Offering
After the effectiveness of the Recapitalization, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of the offering, there will be no Class A common shares outstanding and common shares outstanding.
Use of Proceeds
The proceeds from this offering, before deducting underwriting discounts, will be approximately $ million (or $ million if the underwriters exercise the overallotment option to purchase additional common shares in full), assuming the shares are sold for $ per share, the midpoint price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus.
The selling shareholders will receive all of the proceeds from this offering, and we will not receive any proceeds from this offering. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Dividend Policy
We intend to pay dividends on our common shares in an amount and on such dates as may be determined by our board of directors from time to time in their discretion. Our board of directors may take into account a variety of factors when determining whether to declare any future dividends, including, our financial condition, general business condition, legal, tax and regulatory limitations, contractual prohibitions and any other factor that our board of directors deems relevant. See “Dividend Policy” for more information.
Risk Factors
You should read the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 15 for a discussion of some of the risks and uncertainties you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common shares.
Proposed NASDAQ Stock Market Symbol
“JRVR”


Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus:
  • gives effect to the conversion of all of our outstanding Class A common shares into common shares, at a 1 to ratio;
  • assumes the effectiveness of our amended and restated bye-laws;
  • assumes an initial public offering price of $ per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus;
  • excludes common shares reserved for future issuance under our 2014 Long-Term Incentive Plan (defined below), which will become effective upon the consummation of the offering contemplated by this prospectus; and
  • assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase an additional common shares to cover common shares by the underwriters that exceed the number of shares being offered, if any.

RISK FACTORS
This offering and investing in our common shares involve a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this prospectus, before deciding to invest in our common shares. The occurrence of any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations or prospects. In that event, the market price of our common shares could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. We have organized the discussion of risks using topic headings for convenience of reference only. Many of the risks discussed under one topic heading are integrally related to risks discussed under another topic heading. You should read all of the risk sections, as well as the entire prospectus, especially our Business section and the Management Discussion and Analysis for a full understanding of the risks associated with the purchase of shares in our Company.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our actual incurred losses may be greater than our loss and loss adjustment expense reserves, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our financial condition and results of operations depend upon our ability to assess accurately the potential losses and loss adjustment expenses under the terms of the insurance policies or reinsurance contracts we underwrite. Reserves do not represent an exact calculation of liability. Rather, reserves represent an estimate of what we expect the ultimate settlement and administration of claims will cost us, and our ultimate liability may be greater or less than current reserves. These estimates are based on our assessment of facts and circumstances then known, as well as estimates of future trends in claim severity, claim frequency, judicial theories of liability and other factors. These variables are affected by both internal and external events that could increase our exposure to losses, including changes in actuarial projections, claims handling procedures, inflation, climate change, economic and judicial trends, and legislative changes. We continually monitor reserves using new information on reported claims and a variety of statistical techniques.
In the insurance and reinsurance industry, there is always the risk that reserves may prove inadequate. It is possible for insurance and reinsurance companies to underestimate the cost of claims. Our estimates could prove to be low, and this underestimation could have a material adverse effect on our financial strength.
Among the uncertainties we encounter in establishing our reserves for losses and related expenses in connection with our insurance businesses are:
  • When we write “occurrence” policies, we are obligated to pay covered claims, up to the contractually agreed amount, for any covered loss that occurs while the policy is in force. Accordingly, claims may arise many years after a policy has lapsed. Approximately 87.8% of our casualty loss reserves are associated with “occurrence form” policies at June 30, 2014.
  • Even when a claim is received (irrespective of whether the policy is a “claims made” or “occurrence” basis form), it may take considerable time to fully appreciate the extent of the covered loss suffered by the insured and, consequently, estimates of loss associated with specific claims can increase over time.
  • New theories of liability are enforced retroactively from time to time by courts. See also “— The effect of emerging claim and coverage issues on our business is uncertain.”
  • Volatility in the financial markets, economic events and other external factors may result in an increase in the number of claims and the severity of the claims reported. In addition, elevated inflationary conditions would, among other things, cause loss costs to increase.
  • If claims became more frequent, even if we had no liability for those claims, the cost of evaluating these potential claims could escalate beyond the amount of the reserves we have established. As we enter new lines of business, or as a result of new theories of claims, we may encounter an increase in claims frequency and greater claims handling costs than we had anticipated.

In addition, reinsurance reserve estimates are typically subject to greater uncertainty than insurance reserve estimates, primarily due to reliance on the original underwriting decisions made by the ceding company. As a result, we are subject to the risk that our ceding companies may not have adequately evaluated the risks reinsured by us and the premiums ceded may not adequately compensate us for the risks we assume. Other factors resulting in additional uncertainty in establishing reinsurance reserves include:
  • The increased lapse of time from the occurrence of an event to the reporting of the claim and the ultimate resolution or settlement of the claim.
  • The diversity of development patterns among different types of reinsurance treaties.
  • The necessary reliance on the ceding company for information regarding claims.
If any of our insurance or reinsurance reserves should prove to be inadequate for the reasons discussed above, or for any other reason, we will be required to increase reserves, resulting in a reduction in our net income and shareholders’ equity in the period in which the deficiency is identified. Future loss experience substantially in excess of established reserves could also have a material adverse effect on future earnings and liquidity and financial rating, which would affect our ability to attract business and could affect our ability to retain or hire qualified personnel.
Our risk management is based on estimates and judgments that are subject to significant uncertainties.
Our approach to risk management relies on subjective variables that entail significant uncertainties. For example, we rely heavily on estimates of probable maximum losses for certain events that are generated by computer-run models. In addition, we rely on historical data and scenarios in managing credit and interest rate risks in our investment portfolio. These estimates, models, data and scenarios may not produce accurate predictions and consequently, we could incur losses both in the risks we underwrite and to the value of our investment portfolio.
Small changes in assumptions, which depend heavily on our judgment and foresight, can have a significant impact on the modeled outputs. Although we believe that these probabilistic measures provide a meaningful indicator of the relative risk of certain events and changes to our business over time, these measures do not predict our actual exposure to, nor guarantee our successful management of, future losses that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to retain key management and employees or recruit other qualified personnel, we may be adversely affected.
We believe that our future success depends, in large part, on our ability to retain our experienced management team and key employees. For instance, our specialty insurance operations require the services of a number of highly experienced employees, including underwriters, to source quality business and analyze and manage our risk exposure. There can be no assurance that we can attract and retain the necessary employees to conduct our business activities on a timely basis or at all. Our competitors may offer more favorable compensation arrangements to our key management or employees to incentivize them to leave our Company. Furthermore, our competitors may make it more difficult for us to hire their personnel by offering excessive compensation arrangements to certain employees to induce them not to leave their current employment and bringing litigation against employees who do leave (and possibly us as well) to join us. Although we have employment agreements with all of our executive officers, we do not have employment agreements with our senior underwriters or claims personnel. We do not have key person insurance on the lives of any of our key management personnel. Our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel when available and the loss of services of key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Adverse economic factors, including recession, inflation, periods of high unemployment or lower economic activity could result in the sale of fewer policies than expected or an increase in frequency or severity of claims and premium defaults or both, which, in turn, could affect our growth and profitability.
Factors, such as business revenue, economic conditions, the volatility and strength of the capital markets and inflation can all affect the business and economic environment. These same factors affect our ability to generate revenue and profits. In an economic downturn that is characterized by higher

unemployment, declining spending and reduced corporate revenues, the demand for insurance products is adversely affected, which directly affects our premium levels and profitability. Negative economic factors may also affect our ability to receive the appropriate rate for the risk we insure with our policyholders and may adversely affect the number of policies we can write, including with respect to our opportunities to underwrite profitable business. In an economic downturn, our customers may have less need for insurance coverage, cancel existing insurance policies, modify their coverage or not renew with us. Existing policyholders may exaggerate or even falsify claims to obtain higher claims payments. These outcomes would reduce our underwriting profit to the extent these factors are not reflected in the rates we charge.
We underwrite a significant portion of our insurance in the Excess and Surplus Lines segment in California, Texas, Florida and New York and in the workers’ compensation business of the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment in North Carolina and Virginia. Any economic downturn in any such state could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
A decline in our financial strength rating may result in a reduction of new or renewal business.
Companies, insurers and reinsurance brokers use ratings from independent ratings agencies as an important means of assessing the financial strength and quality of reinsurers. A.M. Best has assigned a financial strength rating of “A-” (Excellent) with a “positive outlook,” which is the fourth highest of 15 ratings that A.M. Best issues, to each of James River Insurance, James River Casualty, Falls Lake National, Falls Lake General, Falls Lake Insurance and JRG Re. A.M. Best assigns ratings that are intended to provide an independent opinion of an insurance or reinsurance company’s ability to meet its obligations to policyholders and such ratings are not an evaluation directed to investors. A.M. Best periodically reviews our rating and may revise it downward or revoke it at its sole discretion based primarily on its analysis of our balance sheet strength (including capital adequacy and loss and loss adjustment expense reserve adequacy), operating performance and business profile. Factors that could affect such an analysis include but are not limited to:
  • if we change our business practices from our organizational business plan in a manner that no longer supports A.M. Best’s rating;
  • if unfavorable financial, regulatory or market trends affect us, including excess market capacity;
  • if our losses exceed our loss reserves;
  • if we have unresolved issues with government regulators;
  • if we are unable to retain our senior management or other key personnel;
  • if our investment portfolio incurs significant losses; or
  • if A.M. Best alters its capital adequacy assessment methodology in a manner that would adversely affect our rating.
These and other factors could result in a downgrade of our rating. A downgrade of our rating could cause our current and future brokers and agents, retail brokers and insureds to choose other, more highly-rated competitors. A downgrade of this rating could also increase the cost or reduce the availability of reinsurance to us.
In addition, in view of the earnings and capital pressures recently experienced by many financial institutions, including insurance companies, it is possible that rating organizations will heighten the level of scrutiny that they apply to such institutions, will increase the frequency and scope of their credit reviews, will request additional information from the companies that they rate and may increase the capital and other requirements employed in the rating organizations’ models for maintenance of certain ratings levels. It is possible that such reviews of us may result in adverse ratings consequences, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. A downgrade below A- or withdrawal of any rating could severely limit or prevent us from writing new and renewal insurance or reinsurance contracts. See also “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources — Ratings.”

We distribute products through a select group of brokers and agents, several of which account for a significant portion of our business, and there can be no assurance that such relationships will continue, or if they do continue, that the relationship will be on favorable terms to us. In addition, reliance on brokers and agents subjects us to their credit risk.
We distribute our products through a select group of brokers and agents. In 2013:
  • the Excess and Surplus Lines segment conducted business with four brokers that produced an aggregate of $99.9 million in gross written premiums, or 51.9% of that segment’s gross written premiums for the year;
  • the Specialty Admitted Insurance segment conducted business with one agent that produced $3 million in gross written premiums, representing 14.7% of that segment’s gross written premiums for the year; and
  • the Casualty Reinsurance segment conducted business with four brokers that generated $140.2 million of gross written premiums, or 90.2% of that segment’s gross written premiums for the year.
We cannot assure you that the relationship with any of these brokers will continue. Even if the relationships do continue, they may not be on terms that are profitable for us. The termination of a relationship with one or more significant brokers or agents could result in lower direct written premiums and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or business prospects.
Certain premiums from policyholders, where the business is produced by brokers or agents, are collected directly by the brokers or agents and forwarded to our insurance subsidiaries. In certain jurisdictions, when the insured pays its policy premium to brokers or agents for payment on behalf of our insurance subsidiaries, the premiums might be considered to have been paid under applicable insurance laws and regulations. Accordingly, the insured would no longer be liable to us for those amounts, whether or not we have actually received the premiums from that broker or agent. Consequently, we assume a degree of credit risk associated with brokers and agents. Where necessary, we review the financial condition of potential new brokers and agents before we agree to transact business with them. Although failures by brokers and agents to remit premiums have not been material to date, there may be instances where brokers and agents collect premiums but do not remit them to us and we may be required under applicable law to provide the coverage set forth in the policy despite the absence of premiums.
Because the possibility of these events depends in large part upon the financial condition and internal operations of our brokers and agents (which in most cases is not public information), we are not able to quantify the exposure presented by this risk. If we are unable to collect premiums from brokers and agents in the future, underwriting profits may decline and our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We are subject to extensive regulation, which may adversely affect our ability to achieve our business objectives. In addition, if we fail to comply with these regulations, we may be subject to penalties, including fines and suspensions, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our admitted insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to extensive regulation, primarily by Ohio (the domiciliary state for James River Insurance, Falls Lake National and Falls Lake General), North Carolina (the domiciliary state for Stonewood Insurance), Virginia (the domiciliary state for James River Casualty), Bermuda (the domicile of JRG Re), and to a lesser degree, the other jurisdictions in the United States in which we operate. Most insurance regulations are designed to protect the interests of insurance policyholders, as opposed to the interests of shareholders. These regulations generally are administered by a department of insurance in each state and relate to, among other things, authorizations to write certain lines of business, capital and surplus requirements, reserve requirements, rate and form approvals, investment and underwriting limitations, affiliate transactions, dividend limitations, cancellation and non-renewal of policies, changes in control, solvency and a variety of other financial and non-financial aspects of our business. These laws and regulations are regularly re-examined and any changes in these laws and regulations or new laws may be more restrictive, could make it more expensive to conduct business or otherwise adversely affect our operations. State insurance departments and the Bermuda Monetary Authority, (the “BMA”) also conduct periodic examinations of the affairs of insurance companies and

reinsurance companies and require the filing of annual and other reports relating to financial condition, holding company issues and other matters. These regulatory requirements may impose timing and expense or other constraints that could adversely affect our ability to achieve some or all of our business objectives.
In addition, regulatory authorities have broad discretion to deny or revoke licenses for various reasons, including the violation of regulations. For example, an insurer’s registration may be cancelled by the BMA on certain grounds specified in the Insurance Act 1978 of Bermuda (the “Insurance Act”), including failure by the insurer to comply with its obligations under the Insurance Act, or if the BMA believes that the insurer has not been carrying on business in accordance with sound insurance principles. In some instances, where there is uncertainty as to applicability, we follow practices based on our interpretations of regulations or practices that we believe are generally followed by the industry. These practices may turn out to be different from the interpretations of regulatory authorities. If we do not have the requisite licenses and approvals or do not comply with applicable regulatory requirements, insurance regulatory authorities could preclude or temporarily suspend us from carrying on some or all of our activities or otherwise penalize us. This could adversely affect our ability to operate our business.
The admitted market is subject to more state regulation than the E&S market, particularly with regard to rate and form filing requirements, restrictions on the ability to exit lines of business, premium tax payments and membership in various state associations, such as guaranty funds. Some states have deregulated their commercial insurance markets. We cannot predict the effect that further deregulation would have on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (the “NAIC”) has developed a system to test the adequacy of statutory capital of U.S.-based insurers, known as risk-based capital or “RBC,” that many states have adopted. This system establishes the minimum amount of risk-based capital necessary for a company to support its overall business operations. It identifies property-casualty insurers that may be inadequately capitalized by looking at certain inherent risks of each insurer’s assets and liabilities and its mix of net written premiums. Insurers falling below a calculated threshold may be subject to varying degrees of regulatory action, including supervision, rehabilitation or liquidation. Failure to maintain adequate risk-based capital at the required levels could adversely affect the ability of our insurance subsidiaries to maintain regulatory authority to conduct their business. See “Certain Regulatory Considerations — U.S. Insurance Regulation — State Regulation.”
In addition, the various state insurance regulators have increased their focus on risks within an insurer’s holding company system that may pose enterprise risk to the insurer. In 2012, the NAIC adopted significant changes to the insurance holding company act and regulations (the “NAIC Amendments”). The NAIC Amendments, when adopted by the various states, are designed to respond to perceived gaps in the regulation of insurance holding company systems in the United States. One of the major changes is a requirement that an insurance holding company system’s ultimate controlling person submit annually to its lead state insurance regulator an “enterprise risk report” that identifies activities, circumstances or events involving one or more affiliates of an insurer that, if not remedied properly, are likely to have a material adverse effect upon the financial condition or liquidity of the insurer or its insurance holding company system as a whole. Other changes include requiring a controlling person to submit prior notice to its domiciliary insurance regulator of a divestiture of control, having detailed minimum requirements for cost sharing and management agreements between an insurer and its affiliates and expanding of the agreements between an insurer and its affiliates to be filed with its domiciliary insurance regulator. The NAIC Amendments must be adopted by the individual state legislatures and insurance regulators in order to be effective. Each of Ohio and Virginia, i.e., two states in which certain of our U.S. insurance subsidiaries are domiciled, include this enterprise risk report requirement, while North Carolina has yet to incorporate this requirement into its insurance laws.
In 2012, the NAIC also adopted the Risk Management and Own Risk and Solvency Assessment Model Act (the “ORSA Model Act”). The ORSA Model Act, when adopted by the various states, will require an insurance holding company system’s Chief Risk Officer to submit annually to its lead state insurance regulator an Own Risk and Solvency Assessment Summary Report (“ORSA”). The ORSA is a confidential internal assessment appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of an insurer, conducted by that insurer of the material and relevant risks identified by the insurer associated with an insurer’s current

business plan and the sufficiency of capital resources to support those risks. The ORSA Model Act must be adopted by the individual state legislature and insurance regulators in order to be effective. Ohio and Virginia have adopted the ORSA Model Act in whole or substantial part, which will be effective beginning in January 2015.
We cannot predict the impact, if any, that the NAIC Amendments, compliance with the ORSA Model Act or any other regulatory requirements may have on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The failure of any of the loss limitations or exclusions we employ, or changes in other claims or coverage issues, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Although we seek to mitigate our loss exposure through a variety of methods, the future is inherently unpredictable. It is difficult to predict the timing, frequency and severity of losses with statistical certainty. It is not possible to completely eliminate our exposure to unforecasted or unpredictable events and, to the extent that losses from such risks occur, our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
For instance, various provisions of our policies, such as limitations or exclusions from coverage or choice of forum, which have been negotiated to limit our risks, may not be enforceable in the manner we intend. At the present time, we employ a variety of endorsements to our policies that limit exposure to known risks. As industry practices and legal, judicial, social and other conditions change, unexpected and unintended issues related to claims and coverage may emerge. These issues may adversely affect our business by either extending coverage beyond the underwriting intent or by increasing the size or number of claims.
In addition, we design our E&S lines’ policy terms to manage our exposure to expanding theories of legal liability like those which have given rise to claims for lead paint, asbestos, mold, construction defects and environmental matters. Many of the policies we issue also include conditions requiring the prompt reporting of claims to us and entitle us to decline coverage in the event of a violation of that condition. Also, many of our policies limit the period during which a policyholder may bring a claim under the policy, which in many cases is shorter than the statutory period under which such claims can be brought against our policyholders. While these exclusions and limitations help us assess and reduce our loss exposure and help eliminate known exposures to certain risks, it is possible that a court or regulatory authority could nullify or void an exclusion or legislation could be enacted modifying or barring the use of such endorsements and limitations. These types of governmental actions could result in higher than anticipated losses and loss adjustment expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. In some instances, these changes may not become apparent until some time after we have issued insurance policies that are affected by the changes. As a result, the full extent of liability under our insurance contracts may not be known for many years after a contract is issued.
The effect of emerging claim and coverage issues on our business is uncertain.
As industry practices and legal, judicial, social and other environmental conditions change, unexpected and unintended issues related to claims and coverage may emerge. These issues may adversely affect our business by either broadening coverage beyond our underwriting intent or by increasing the number or size of claims. In some instances, these changes may not become apparent until some time after we have issued insurance or reinsurance contracts that are affected by the changes. As a result, the full extent of liability under our insurance or reinsurance contracts may not be known for many years after a contract is issued.
Three examples of unanticipated risks that affected the insurance industry are:
  • Asbestos liability applied to manufacturers of products and contractors who installed those products.
  • Apportionment of liability for ground settlement assigned to subcontractors who may have been involved in mundane tasks (such as installing sheetrock in a home).
  • Court decisions, such as the 1995 Montrose decision in California, that read policy exclusions narrowly so as to expand coverage, thereby requiring insurers to create and write new exclusions.

Our investment portfolio is subject to significant market and credit risks, which could result in an adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
Our results of operations depend, in part, on the performance of our investment portfolio. We seek to hold a diversified portfolio of investments that is managed by professional investment advisory management firms in accordance with our investment policy and periodically reviewed by our Investment Committee. However, our investments are subject to general economic conditions and market risks as well as risks inherent to particular securities.
Our primary market risk exposures are to changes in interest rates and equity prices. See “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.” In recent years, interest rates have been at or near historic lows. A protracted low interest rate environment would continue to place pressure on net investment income, particularly related to fixed income securities and short-term investments, which, in turn, may adversely affect our operating results. Future increases in interest rates could cause the values of our fixed income securities portfolios to decline, with the magnitude of the decline depending on the duration of our portfolio and the amount by which interest rates increase. Some fixed income securities have call or prepayment options, which represent possible reinvestment risk in declining rate environments. Other fixed income securities such as mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities carry prepayment risk or, in a rising interest rate environment, may not pre-pay as quickly as expected. In addition, individual securities in our fixed income securities portfolio are subject to credit risk and default. Downgrades in the credit ratings of fixed maturities can have a significant negative effect on the market valuation of such securities.
The severe downturn in the public debt and equity markets beginning in 2008 resulted in significant realized and unrealized losses in our investment portfolio. In the event of another financial crisis, we could incur substantial realized and unrealized investment losses in future periods, which would have an adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations, debt and financial strength ratings, insurance subsidiaries’ capital liquidity and ability to access capital markets.
The value of our investment portfolio is subject to the risk that certain investments may default or become impaired due to deterioration in the financial condition of one or more issuers of the securities held, or due to deterioration in the financial condition of an insurer that guarantees an issuer’s payments of such investments. Such defaults and impairments could reduce our net investment income and result in realized investment losses.
We hold investments in publicly-traded syndicated bank loans (18.4% of the carrying value of our invested assets as of June 30, 2014). Most of these loans are issued to sub-investment grade borrowers. While this class of investment has been profitable for us, a severe downturn in the markets could affect the value of these investments, including the possibility that we would suffer substantial losses on this portfolio. As of June 30, 2014, the fair value of our investments in publicly traded syndicated bank loans was $226.4 million.
As of June 30, 2014, we held equity and debt investments of $23.4 million and $17.4 million, respectively, in non-public limited liability companies that have invested in renewable energy investments. These investments were sponsored and are managed by an affiliate of one of our principal shareholders. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Investments with Affiliates of the D. E. Shaw Affiliates.” We invested in the equity and debt of these projects because we anticipate earning attractive risk-adjusted returns from these investments. However, our investments in these projects are illiquid and the ultimate results from these investments may be unknown for some time.
We also invest in marketable equity securities. These securities are carried on the balance sheet at fair market value and are subject to potential losses and declines in market value. Our invested assets also include interests in limited partnerships and privately held equity and debt investments totaling $17.6 million at June 30, 2014. These investments were designed to provide diversification of risk and enhance the return on the overall portfolio. However, these investments entail substantial risks and are generally illiquid. Our investment portfolio is subject to increased valuation uncertainties when investment markets are illiquid. The valuation of investments is more subjective when markets are illiquid, thereby increasing the risk that the estimated fair value (i.e., the carrying amount) does not reflect prices at which actual transactions would occur.

Risks for all types of securities are managed through application of our investment policy, which establishes investment parameters that include (but are not limited to) maximum percentages of investment in certain types of securities and minimum levels of credit quality, which we believe are within guidelines established by the NAIC, BMA and various state insurance departments, as applicable.
Although we seek to preserve our capital, we cannot be certain that our investment objectives will be achieved, and results may vary substantially over time. In addition, although we seek to employ investment strategies that are not correlated with our insurance and reinsurance exposures, losses in our investment portfolio may occur at the same time as underwriting losses and, therefore, exacerbate the adverse effect of the losses on us.
The insurance and reinsurance business is historically cyclical, and we may experience periods with excess underwriting capacity and unfavorable premium rates, which could adversely affect our business.
Historically, insurers and reinsurers have experienced significant fluctuations in operating results due to competition, frequency and severity of catastrophic events, levels of capacity, adverse trends in litigation, regulatory constraints, general economic conditions and other factors. We have experienced these types of fluctuations during our Company’s short history. The supply of insurance and reinsurance is related to prevailing prices, the level of insured losses and the level of capital available to the industry that, in turn, may fluctuate in response to changes in rates of return on investments being earned in the insurance and reinsurance industry. As a result, the insurance and reinsurance business historically has been a cyclical industry characterized by periods of intense price competition due to excessive underwriting capacity as well as periods when shortages of capacity increased premium levels. Demand for insurance and reinsurance depends on numerous factors, including the frequency and severity of catastrophic events, levels of capacity, the introduction of new capital providers, general economic conditions and underwriting results of primary insurers. All of these factors fluctuate and may contribute to price declines generally in the insurance and reinsurance industry.
We cannot predict with certainty whether market conditions will improve, remain constant or deteriorate. Negative market conditions may impair our ability to underwrite insurance and reinsurance at rates we consider appropriate and commensurate relative to the risk assumed. If we cannot underwrite insurance or reinsurance at appropriate rates, our ability to transact business will be materially and adversely affected. Any of these factors could lead to an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may become subject to additional government or market regulation which may have a material adverse impact on our business.
Market disruptions like those experienced during the credit-driven financial market collapse in 2008, as well as the dramatic increase in the capital allocated to alternative asset management during recent years, have led to increased governmental as well as self-regulatory scrutiny of the insurance industry in general. In addition, certain legislation proposing greater regulation of the industry is periodically considered by governing bodies of some jurisdictions, and the credit-driven equity market collapse may increase the likelihood that some increased regulation of the industry is mandated.
Because we are a Bermuda company, we are subject to changes in Bermuda law and regulation that may have an adverse impact on our operations, including through the imposition of tax liability or increased regulatory supervision. In addition, we will be exposed to any changes in the political environment in Bermuda.
Our business could be adversely affected by changes in state laws, including those relating to asset and reserve valuation requirements, surplus requirements, limitations on investments and dividends, enterprise risk and risk-based capital requirements and, at the federal level, by laws and regulations that may affect certain aspects of the insurance industry, including proposals for preemptive federal regulation. The U.S. federal government generally has not directly regulated the insurance industry except for certain areas of the market, such as insurance for flood, nuclear and terrorism risks. However, the federal government has undertaken initiatives or considered legislation in several areas that may affect the insurance industry, including tort reform, corporate governance and the taxation of reinsurance companies. The Dodd-Frank

Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) also established the Federal Insurance Office, which is authorized to study, monitor and report to Congress on the insurance industry and to recommend that the Financial Stability Oversight Council (the “FSOC”) designate an insurer as an entity posing risks to U.S. financial stability in the event of the insurer’s material financial distress or failure. In December 2013, the Federal Insurance Office issued a report on alternatives to modernize and improve the system of insurance regulation in the United States, including increasing national uniformity through either a federal charter or effective action by the states. Any additional regulations established as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act or actions in response to the Federal Insurance Office Report could increase our costs of compliance or lead to disciplinary action. In addition, legislation has been introduced from time to time that, if enacted, could result in the federal government assuming a more direct role in the regulation of the insurance industry, including federal licensing in addition to or in lieu of state licensing and reinsurance for natural catastrophes. We are unable to predict whether any legislation will be enacted or any regulations will be adopted, or the effect any such developments could have on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The Bermuda insurance and reinsurance regulatory framework has become subject to increased scrutiny in many jurisdictions. As a result, the BMA has implemented and imposed additional requirements on the companies it regulates, as part of its efforts to achieve equivalence under Solvency II, the European Union regulatory regime that was enacted in November 2009 which imposes new solvency and governance requirements across all European Union Member States. Although Solvency II was originally supposed to have become effective by November 1, 2012, the Omnibus II directive has revised the date for transposition and implementation of Solvency II by the European Union Member States to January 2016. As a result of the delay in the implementation of Solvency II, it is unclear when the European Commission will make a final decision on whether or not it will recognize the solvency regime in Bermuda as equivalent to that proposed by Solvency II.
It is impossible to predict what, if any, changes in the regulations applicable to us, the markets in which we operate, trade and invest or the counterparties with which we do business may be instituted in the future. Any such regulation could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Our reinsurance business is subject to loss settlements made by ceding companies and fronting carriers, which could materially adversely affect our performance.
Where JRG Re enters into assumed reinsurance contracts with third parties, all loss settlements made by the ceding company will be unconditionally binding upon us, provided they are within the terms of the underlying policies and within the terms of the relevant contract. While we believe the ceding companies will settle such claims in good faith, we are bound to accept the claims settlements agreed to by the ceding companies. Under the underlying policies, each ceding company typically bears the burden of proving that a contractual exclusion applies to a loss, and there may be circumstances where the facts of a loss are insufficient to support the application of an exclusion. In such circumstances, we assume such losses under the reinsured policies, which could materially adversely affect our performance.
Our operating results have in the past varied from quarter to quarter and may not be indicative of our long-term prospects.
Our operating results are subject to fluctuation and have historically varied from quarter to quarter. We expect our quarterly results to continue to fluctuate in the future due to a number of factors, including the general economic conditions in the markets where we operate, the frequency of occurrence or severity of catastrophic or other insured events, fluctuating interest rates, claims exceeding our loss reserves, competition in our industry, deviations from expected renewal rates of our existing policies and contracts, adverse investment performance and the cost of reinsurance and retrocessional coverage.
In particular, we seek to underwrite products and make investments to achieve favorable returns on tangible equity over the long term. In addition, our opportunistic nature and focus on long-term growth in tangible equity may result in fluctuations in total premiums written from period to period as we concentrate on underwriting contracts that we believe will generate better long-term, rather than short-term, results. Accordingly, our short-term results of operations may not be indicative of our long-term prospects.

We could be forced to sell investments to meet our liquidity requirements.
We invest the premiums we receive from our insureds and ceding companies until they are needed to pay policyholder claims or until they are recognized as profits. Consequently, we seek to manage the duration of our investment portfolio based on the duration of our loss and loss adjustment expense reserves to ensure sufficient liquidity and avoid having to liquidate securities to fund claims. Risks such as inadequate loss and loss adjustment reserves or unfavorable trends in litigation could potentially result in the need to sell investments to fund these liabilities. Such sales could result in significant realized losses depending on the conditions of the general market, interest rates and credit issues with individual securities.
We may be unable to obtain reinsurance coverage at reasonable prices or on terms that provide us adequate protection.
We purchase reinsurance in many of our lines of business to help manage our exposure to insurance and reinsurance risks that we underwrite and to reduce volatility in our results. In addition, JRG Re manages its risk through retrocession arrangements with third-party reinsurers. A retrocession is a practice whereby a reinsurer cedes risk to one or more other reinsurers.
The availability and cost of reinsurance are subject to prevailing market conditions, both in terms of price and available capacity, each of which can affect our business volume and profitability. The availability of reasonably affordable reinsurance is a critical element of our business plan. One important way we utilize reinsurance is to reduce volatility in claims payments by limiting our exposure to losses from large risks. Another way we use reinsurance is to purchase substantial protection against concentrated losses when we enter new markets. As a result, our ability to manage volatility and avoid significant losses, expand into new markets or grow by offering insurance to new kinds of enterprises may be limited by the unavailability of reasonably priced reinsurance. We may not be able to obtain reinsurance on acceptable terms or from entities with satisfactory creditworthiness. In such event, if we are unwilling to accept the terms or credit risk of potential reinsurers, we would have to reduce the level of our underwriting commitments, which would reduce our revenues.
Many reinsurance companies have begun to exclude certain coverages from, or alter terms in, the reinsurance contracts we enter into with them. Some exclusions relate to risks that we cannot in turn exclude from the policies we write due to business or regulatory constraints. In addition, reinsurers are imposing terms, such as lower per occurrence and aggregate limits, on direct insurers that do not wholly cover the risks written by these direct insurers. As a result, we, like other direct insurance companies, write insurance policies which to some extent do not have the benefit of reinsurance protection. These gaps in reinsurance protection expose us to greater risk and greater potential losses. For example, certain reinsurers have excluded coverage for terrorist acts or priced such coverage at unreasonably high rates. Many direct insurers, including us, have written policies without terrorist act exclusions and in many cases we cannot exclude terrorist acts because of regulatory constraints. We may, therefore, be exposed to potential losses as a result of terrorist acts. See also “Business — Purchase of Reinsurance.”
We are subject to credit risk with regard to our reinsurance counterparties and insurance companies with whom we have a fronting arrangement.
Although reinsurance makes the assuming reinsurer liable to us to the extent of the risk ceded, we are not relieved of our primary liability to our insureds as the direct insurer. At December 31, 2013, reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses from our three largest reinsurers was $67.4 million in the aggregate and represented 56.4% of the total balance. Additionally, prepaid reinsurance premiums ceded to two reinsurers at December 31, 2013 was $12.7 million in the aggregate, or 53.6% of the total balance. We cannot be sure that our reinsurers will pay all reinsurance claims on a timely basis or at all. For example, reinsurers may default in their financial obligations to us as the result of insolvency, lack of liquidity, operational failure, fraud, asserted defenses based on agreement wordings or the principle of utmost good faith, asserted deficiencies in the documentation of agreements or other reasons. The failure of a reinsurer to pay us does not lessen our contractual obligations to insureds. If a reinsurer fails to pay the expected portion of a claim or claims, our net losses might increase substantially and adversely affect our financial condition. Any disputes with reinsurers regarding coverage under reinsurance contracts could be time-consuming, costly and uncertain of success.